Oxford Statement on International Law Protections Against Foreign Electoral Interference through Digital Means

i. Balloting: registering, casting, tabulating, or assuring the integrity of a ballot including voter registries, ballot security and integrity protocols, voting machines, and paper ballots;

ii. Verifying: systems used for reporting, recording, verifying and auditing votes and results of an election;

iii. Informing: public or private systems that provide an electorate with procedural information about how to participate in an electoral process, as well as substantive information , of whatever origin, related to an electoral process, including information on individuals or groups participating in electoral processes, such as candidates for elective office, political parties, or organizations. A state must not render assistance to cyber operations that it knows will likely have adverse consequences for electoral processes in other states. Dapo Akande, Professor of Public International Law, Co-Director, Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law & Armed Conflict (ELAC), University of Oxford Mariana Salazar Albornoz, Member of the Inter-American Juridical Committee, Professor of International Law, Universidad Iberoamericana Kai Ambos, Professor and Chair of Criminal Law, Procedure, Comparative Law, International Criminal Law and Public International Law, Georg August Universität Göttingen, Germany Joshua Andresen, Deputy Head of School and Senior Lecturer in National Security and Foreign Relations Law, School of Law, University of Surrey Mahnoush H. Arsanjani, Former Director, Codification Division, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations Karine Bannelier, Associate Professor of International Law, Deputy Director of the Cyber Security Institute, University Grenoble Alpes Richard Barnes, Professor of International Law, School of Law, University of Lincoln Pnina Sharvit Baruch, Senior Research Fellow and Head of Program on Law and National Security, Israel Institute for National Security Studies Gary Bass, Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University Eyal Benvenisti, Whewell Professor of International Law, University of Cambridge, C C Ng Fellow, Jesus College, Director of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law Susan H. Bitensky, Professor of Law, Michigan State University College of Law Christopher J. Borgen, Professor of Law and Co-Director, Center for International and Comparative Law, St. John’s University School of Law Michael Bothe, Professor emeritus of Public law, Law School, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main Tess Bridgeman, former Special Assistant to the President, Associate White House Counsel, and Deputy Legal Adviser to the National Security Council; Co-Editor-in-Chief, Just Security Chester Brown, Professor of International Law and International Arbitration, The University of Sydney Law School Russell Buchan, Senior Lecturer in International Law, University of Sheffield Emiliano Buis, Professor of International Law, University of Buenos Aires Michael Byers, Professor & Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law, University of British Columbia Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli, Associate Researcher of the Institute of Human Rights and Business, UDEM University Benarji Chakka, Professor of International Law, VIT-AP University School of Law (VSL), VIT-AP University, India Théodore Christakis, Professor of International and European Law, Chair Legal and Regulatory Implications of Artificial Intelligence, University Grenoble Alpes Roger S. Clark, Board of Governors Professor, Rutgers Law School Antonio Coco, Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Essex and Visiting Fellow at ELAC, University of Oxford Camilla Guldahl Cooper, Associate professor at the Norwegian Defence University College, Oslo Geoffrey S. Corn, Gary A. Kuiper Distinguished Professor of National Security Law, South Texas College of Law Houston Emily Crawford, Associate Professor, Sydney Law School, The University of Sydney Robert Cryer, Professor of International and Criminal Law, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom and Extraordinary Professor of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa Federica D’Alessandra, Executive Director, Oxford Program on International Peace and Security, ELAC Tom Dannenbaum, Assistant Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy, Tufts Margaret M. deGuzman, James E. Beasley Professor of Law and Co-director of the Institute for International Law and Public Policy at Temple University Beasley School of Law François Delerue, Research Fellow in Cyberdefense and International Law at the Institut de Recherche stratégique de l’École militaire (IRSEM) and Adjunct Lecturer at Sciences Po, Paris, France Talita de Souza Dias, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, ELAC, University of Oxford Jessica Dorsey, Assistant Professor of International and European Law, Utrecht University School of Law Alonso Gurmendi Dunkelberg, Assistant Professor, Universidad del Pacífico, Peru Jeffrey Dunoff, Laura H. Carnell Professor of Law, Temple University School of Law Max du Plessis SC, Adjunct Professor, Nelson Mandela University and Senior Researcher, Institute for Security Studies Kristen E. Eichensehr, Martha Lubin Karsh and Bruce A. Karsh Bicentennial Professor of Law, University of Virginia School of Law Cesáreo Gutiérrez Espada, Emeritus professor of International Law, Universidad de Murcia, Spain Dorothy Estrada-Tanck, Associate Professor of Public International Law and Director of the Legal Clinic, University of Murcia, Spain Tom Farer, University Professor and Dean Emeritus (1996-2010), Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver Benjamin B. Ferencz, former Nuremberg war crimes Prosecutor David P. Fidler, Adjunction Senior Fellow for Cybersecurity and Global Health, Council on Foreign Relations Dieter Fleck, Honorary President, International Society for Military Law and the Law of War Robin Geiss, Professor and Chair of International Law and Security, University of Glasgow; Director, Glasgow Centre for International Law and Security (GCILS) Geoff Gilbert, Professor of International Human Rights & Humanitarian Law, School of Law and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex Chiara Giorgetti, Professor of Law, Richmond Law School Guy S. Goodwin-Gill, Professor of Law, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, UNSW; Emeritus Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford James A. Green, Professor of Public International Law, School of Law University of Reading Oren Gross, Irving Younger Professor of Law, University of Minnesota Law School Nienke Grossman, Professor of Law; Co-Director, Center for International and Comparative Law, University of Baltimore School of Law Douglas Guilfoyle, Associate Professor of International and Security Law, University of New South Wales Canberra Oleg Gushchyn, Professor, Military Law Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine Monica Hakimi, James V. Campbell Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law School Françoise J. Hampson, Professor Emeritus, Law School & Human Rights Centre, University of Essex Adil Haque, Professor of Law and Judge Jon O. Newman Scholar, Rutgers Law School Kevin Jon Heller, Professor of International Law and Security, University of Copenhagen (Centre for Military Studies); Professor of Law, Australian National University Christian Henderson, Professor of International Law, University of Sussex Stacey Henderson, Lecturer of Law, Adelaide Law School, The University of Adelaide Tamás Hoffmann, Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Social Sciences Institute for Legal Studies; Associate Professor, Corvinus University of Budapest Duncan B. Hollis, Laura H. Carnell Professor of Law, Temple University School of Law María-José Cervell Hortal, tenured professor of Public International Law, Universidad de Murcia, Spain Kristine Huskey, Clinical Professor of Law, University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law Mark Janis, formerly Fellow of Exeter College & Reader in Law, University of Oxford Eric Talbot Jensen, Robert W. Barker Professor of Law, Brigham Young University Derek Jinks, A.W. Walker Centennial Chair in Law, University of Texas School of Law Kate Jones, Faculty of Law, University of Oxford Kadri Kaska, Head of Law Branch, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence David Kaye, Professor of Law, UC Irvine School of Law, UN Special Rapporteur (2014-2020) Shayan Ahmed Khan, Senior Research Associate, Research Society of International Law Ido Kilovaty, Assistant Professor of Law, University of Tulsa College of Law Jan Klabbers, Professor of International Law, University of Helsinki Pierre Klein, Professor, Centre of International Law, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Harold Hongju Koh, Sterling Professor of International Law, Yale Law School, Legal Adviser (2009-13) and Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (1998-2001), US Department of State Robert Kolb, Professor in Public International Law, University of Geneva David Kretzmer, Emeritus Professor of international Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Leonhard Kreuzer, Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, Germany Masahiro Kurosaki, Associate Professor of International Law and Director of the Study of Law, Security and Military Operations, National Defense Academy of Japan Patryk I. Labuda, Postdoctoral Fellow, Amsterdam Center for International Law Henning Lahmann, Senior Researcher, Digital Society Institute, ESMT Berlin Kobi Leins, Senior Research Fellow in Digital Ethics, Centre for AI and Digital Ethics; Non-Resident Fellow, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Rain Liivoja, Associate Professor of Law, University of Queensland Marco Longobardo, Lecturer in International Law, University of Westminster Juan Jorge Piernas López, Tenured Professor of Public International Law, University of Murcia, Spain Fabrizio Marrella, Full Professor of International Law and Pro-Vice-Chancellor for International Relations, “Ca’ Foscari” University of Venice, Italy; Professeur invité at the Sorbonne Law School, University Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne Maurice Mendelson QC, Blackstone Chambers Barristers; Emeritus Professor of International Law in the University of London Tomohiro Mikanagi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Marko Milanovic, Professor of Public International Law, University of Nottingham School of Law Tal Mimran, Lecturer of Public International Law and Research Fellow, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Harriet Moynihan, Senior Research Fellow, International Law Programme, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs) Sean D. Murphy, Manatt/Ahn Professor of International Law, George Washington University Law School Michael A. Newton, Professor of the Practice of Law, Vanderbilt University Law School James C. O’Brien, Vice Chair, Albright Stonebridge Group Jens David Ohlin, Vice Dean and Professor of Law, Cornell Law School Obiora Chinedu Okafor, Professor and York Research Chair in International and Transnational Legal Studies, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto, Canada Roger O’Keefe, Professor of International Law, Bocconi University and Honorary Professor of Law, University College London Andreas Paulus, Professor, University of Goettingen, Germany Mónica Pinto, Professor Emerita, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Derecho, Argentina Erin Pobjie, Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, Germany Anni Pues, Lecturer in International Law, Glasgow Centre for International Law and Security, University of Glasgow Steven R. Ratner, Bruno Simma Collegiate Professor of Law, Director, University of Michigan Donia Human Rights Center, University of Michigan Law School Michael Reisman, Professor Yale Law School Henry J. Richardson III, Professor of Law, Temple University School of Law José Antonio Moreno Rodríguez, Member of the Inter-American Juridical Committee Marco Roscini, Professor of International Law, Westminster Law School, University of Westminster Leila Nadya Sadat, President, International Law Association (American Branch); Special Adviser on Crimes Against Humanity, International Criminal Court Prosecutor; James Carr Professor of International Criminal Law, Director, Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute, Washington University School of Law Barrie Sander, Assistant Professor of International Justice, Leiden University – Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs Andrew Sanger, University Lecturer in International Law, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Corpus Christi College and of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law Arman Sarvarian, Senior Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Surrey Marco Sassòli, Professor of International Law, University of Geneva, Switzerland Ben Saul, Challis Chair of International Law, Sydney Law School Sergey Sayapin, Associate Professor and Associate Dean, School of Law, KIMEP University David J. Scheffer, Clinical Professor Emeritus, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law Michael Schmitt, Professor of International Law at the University of Reading and Francis Lieber Distinguished Scholar at the United States Military Academy (West Point) Iain GM Scobbie, Professor of Public International Law, Director of the Manchester International Law Centre, University of Manchester Irene Vázquez Serrano, Assistant Professor of International Law, University of Murcia, Spain Bruno Simma, Member, Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, former Judge at the International Court of Justice, Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor, U.S.A. David Sloss, John A. and Elizabeth H. Sutro Professor of Law, Santa Clara University School of Law Ronald C. Slye, Professor of Law, Seattle University School of Law Ralph G. Steinhardt, Lobingier Professor of Comparative Law & Jurisprudence; Co-Founder, GW-Oxford Programme in International Human Rights Law, The George Washington University Law School Dale Stephens, Professor of Law, The University of Adelaide Law School Surya P. Subedi, QC, OBE, DCL, Professor, School of Law, University of Leeds, England; Barrister, Three Stone Chambers, Lincoln’s Inn, London Shana Tabak, Executive Director, Tahirih Justice Center Stefan Talmon, Professor and Director, Institute for Public International Law, University of Bonn, and Visiting Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford Ruti Teitel, Ernst C Stiefel Professor of Comparative Law, Director, Institute on Global Law, Justice and Policy, New York Law School Nicholas Tsagourias, Professor of International Law, University of Sheffield Tsvetelina van Benthem, Research Officer, ELAC Willem van Genugten, em. Professor of International Law, Tilburg University Liis Vihul, Founder and CEO, Cyber Law International Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, Professor of Public International Law and European Law, European University, Frankfurt (Oder) Michael Waibel, Professor of International Law, University of Vienna, Austria Christopher Waters, Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Windsor, Canada Ralph Wilde, Associate Professor of International Law, University College London, University of London Image: Matt Anderson Photography – Getty Images

2020-10-28 | Cyber, Cybersecurity, election interference | English |